Grammar. Patterns of meaning in the forms of text, image, space, object, body, sound, and speech. Patterns of meaning in the functions of reference, agency, structure, context, and interest. The activity of parsing these patterns, making sense of their meanings. When we parse, we uncover designs.

Reference: Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis, 2020, Making Sense: Reference, Agency and Structure in a Grammar of Multimodal Meaning, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 49.