Ontology. How things are in the world. The relationship between the patterning of meanings and the patterning of the world. We make sense of the world through our inherited structures of meaning in the forms of text, image, space, object, body, sound, and speech, and their multimodal manifestations. But there is more to the structure of the world than the sense that we can for the moment make in these forms. There are excesses of meaning in the world - things we do not yet know but that are discoverable. And there are excesses of meaning not yet in the world, things that are imaginable and possibly realizable.

Reference: Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis, 2020, Making Sense: Reference, Agency and Structure in a Grammar of Multimodal Meaning, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 271-72, 302.