Perfect Participles and Noun Objects

Perfect participle

Study the following sentences:

The traveller filled his water-bags. He continued his journey.

When combined these sentences become:

Having filled his water-bags, the traveller continued his journey. “Having filled” is called the perfect participle. It is formed by adding the past participle “filled” to the word “having”.

Exercise 1: what are the perfect participles of these verbs? write, hear, see, do, arrive, go, greet, feel, pass.

Exercise 2: combine each of the following pairs of sentences using a perfect participle.

  1. The athletes finished their training. They went home.
  2. Father prepared the soil. He planted the seedlings.
  3. Marco Polo travelled across Asia. He reached Cathay.
  4. The Arab reached Mecca. He felt contented.

Noun objects

Some verbs have not only a subject but also an object.

To find the subject we asked the question who or what before the verb.

Example: The cat drank the milk. Who drank? Subject: The cat.

To find the object we ask the question whom or what after the verb.

Example: The cat drank the milk. Drank what? Object: The milk.

All verbs that have objects are called transitive verbs. If there is no object the verb is intransitive. Note: The verb “to be” is always intransitive.

Exercise 1: write out the following sentences and underline the object.

  1. He finally wrote the letter.
  2. The gardener picked some lovely flowers.
  3. Father drove the new car around the block.
  4. Our baby loves orange juice.
  5. The captain sent a distress signal.

Exercise 2: in the next group of sentences write down the verbs that have objects.

  1. Robert and Christopher jump well.
  2. The train ran off the tracks.
  3. The Mayor presented the prizes to the successful entrants.
  4. Did you miss the bus?
  5. Hail ruined the crop.

Bruce, M.J. 1985. Living Language 6. Melbourne: Methuen, pp.80, 96-97


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